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Cuestión de Estilos

noviembre 22, 2006 4:01 pm Deja un comentario Go to comments

a. Para quién sirven las empresas?

La mayoría de los gerentes americanos asegurará que el único propósito de la empresa es maximizar la riqueza de los Accionistas. “Los Clientes y los Empleados son importantes sólo en la medida en que contribuyen a este propósito”.

Sobre esa afirmación un gerente oriental diría: Los Empleados primero, los Cliente en segundo lugar y los Accionistas en tercer puesto. “Si los salarios son parte del Objetivo, las empresas se convierten en maximizadoras del valor agregado mas que en maximizadoras del beneficio”.

Esa es la divergencia que existe entre dos estilos de Management, cada uno de ellos orientado un mismo objetivo pero con caminos diferentes, el estilo occidental ha imperado durante décadas y es lo que hoy conocemos, el estilo oriental basado en la filosofía TQM está orientada a obtener beneficios pero pensando en los seres humanos.

Algunas de las principales falencias del estilo occidental basan su origen en la incoherencia, ella no es extraña a las formas directivas clásicas. La hiperactividad genera contradicciones; la actitud caprichosa, aparentemente creativa, de ciertos estilos de management degenera fácilmente en incoherencia.

Bien, mezclemos las teorías un tanto académicas Drucker con el realismo de Mintzberg y lo que nos dicen los periódicos y la realidad de los hechos y tendremos el estilo de management que hoy impera en América, que se ha insertado en los países de la Europa desarrollada y que configura el panorama empresarial de nuestros días en el occidente desarrollado.

Para completar la imagen habría que añadir el estilo personal del manager clásico. Su estilo ético y sus formas. En este aspecto, y con los consiguientes matices, se puede decir que estamos ante el estilo “duro”. Extraordinariamente exigente con los demás y a veces incluso consigo mismo, tramposo, rudo, absorbente y soberbio; tiene una especial afición a cobrar muy pronto y a pagar lo más tarde posible, trabaja con un grupo reducido de colaboradores “fieles” y está prejuiciado de acuerdo a como las personas pueden serle útiles para cumplir sus propósitos, casos contrario las minimiza. Concibe el liderazgo en términos estrictos de “lucha por el poder” y es un fiel seguidor de Maquiavelo.

b. El nuevo estilo

“La era de la utilización del hombre como herramienta productiva ha pasado a la historia. La participación es un sistema más complejo que el autoritarismo pero hay pocas compañías que puedan ignorarlo.” Ricardo Semler, empresario

Ese nuevo estilo rompe radicalmente con dos pilares básicos del management clásico:

  1. El primero de ellos es el poder.El liderazgo clásico está basado en el ejercicio del poder. “El Príncipe” de Maquiavelo es quizás el mejor manual de management clásico que se ha escrito. Muchos líderes empresariales y no empresariales clásicos de nuestros días utilizan métodos típicamente “maquiavélicos” se prodría decir. Todos ellos suelen ser buenos acaparadores de poder, buenos conservadores del mismo. Las empresas, las sociedades enteras, han asumido, e incluso adorado, este estilo. Pero las personas hemos evolucionado mucho en los últimos decenios; seguramente más que en los cincuenta mil años anteriores. Hoy, la concentración de poder hace que las personas en las organizaciones se sientan infinitesimales y no sean capaces de nada salvo, apenas, obedecer órdenes. Esto no es suficiente en la moderna organización en donde es indispensable inspirar a las gentes para lograr su participación creativa en el proceso de suministrar bienes y servicios de la máxima calidad.
    Un liderazgo humanista

    Todos los expertos coinciden en que en estos últimos años las preocupaciones empresariales han cambiado radicalmente en esta dirección. Desde los años sesenta hasta comienzos de los ochenta el mundo occidental del management ha estado centrado en tres fundamentos: Estrategia, Estructura y Sistemas. Estrategia para conformar el futuro, Estructura para desplegar recursos de acuerdo con la estrategia, y modernos Sistemas de funcionamiento apoyados básicamente en los ordenadores.

    Desde los ochenta se ha desatado una revolución; ahora las empresas se ocupan de:” el Propósito empresarial, los Procesos de trabajo y las Personas“. El Propósito es la antigua estrategia con la participación de todos; los Procesos son la nueva forma de organizar el trabajo, mucho más cooperativa; las Personas pasan a primer término.

  2. El segundo pilar básico es la desconfianza.Desconfianza en que las personas sirven para algo mejor que para obedecer órdenes. En que, realmente, existen el sentido de la responsabilidad y la creatividad en todos y cada uno de nosotros.
    Desconfianza de las personas.

    La función de control es importante, su ausencia es el caos; pero no un control para castigar la menor deviación de las órdenes. Este tipo de control no tiene otro objeto más que crear un clima de miedo a través de la manifestación palpable de la desconfianza.

    En una empresa alguien comentaba con un compañero acerca de las medidas que estaba adoptando un ejecutivo anglosajón con motivo de una OPA sobre una compañía americana. “Me parece que este hombre se está equivocando”, decía el compañero a su par; “Si, pero ha conseguido atemorizarnos a todos, que era su objetivo.” contestó el colega.

Fuente:  MBA UPM

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